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  • Ulaanbaatar
  • Ulaanbaatar, which means Red Hero, is the capital and the largest city of Mongolia. It is the country’s main center of politics, business and finance, culture and science. About half of the country's populations live in the capital city. Ulaanbaatar was founded in 1639 as Urguu a mobile monastery-town, it was often moved to various places along the Selenge, Orkhon and Tuul rivers. In 1778, the city settled for good at its current location, near the confluence of the Selbe and Tuul rivers and beneath Bogd Khan Uul, back then also on the caravan route from Beijing to Kyakhta. The city consists of a central district built in Soviet 1940s and 1950s-style architecture, surrounded by and mingled with residential concrete tower blocks and large yurt quarters. In recent years, a lot of the towerblock's ground floors have been modified and upgraded to small shops, and many new buildings have been erected.


  • The city offers a broad range of tourist attractions such as museums and monasteries as well as urban services. Among the notable older monasteries older monasteries is the Choijin Lama Monastery, a Buddhist monastery that was completed in 1908. It escaped the destruction of Mongolian monasteries when it was turned into a museum in 1942. Gandan Monastery, which dates to the 19th century. Its most famous attraction is a 26.5 meter high golden statute of Migjid Janraisig. These monasteries are among the very few in Mongolia to escape the wholesale destruction.

    Ulaanbaatar has several museums dedicated to Mongolian history and culture. The Natural History Museum features many dinosaur fossils and meteorites found in Mongolia. The National Museum of Mongolian History includes exhibits from prehistoric times through the Mongol Empire to the present day. The Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts contains a large collection of Mongolian art, including works of the 17th century sculptor/artist Zanabazar, as well as Mongolia’s most famous painting, One Day in Mongolia by B.Sharav.

    Ulan Bator has six major universities: the National University of Mongolia, Science and Technological University of Mongolia, Mongolian State University of Agriculture, University of Health and Medical Science, Pedagogical University, and University of Art and Culture. The National Library of Mongolia has a wide selection of English-language texts on Mongolian subjects.

    It is the main hub from which foreign tourists start their adventure in this beautiful land. Ulaanbaatar has something for everyone to enjoy with a wide range of performing arts and entertainment, from the traditional throat singing and spectacular contortionist to the likes of concerts pianists, ballerinas, and opera singers. Energetic and always exciting, Ulaanbaatar’s club scene demands to be experienced. Many clubs are as cosmopolitan as they come; sporting trendy venues, sound systems and drinks menus. Expect everything from locally brewed Chinggis beer and top-brand lagers to world class wines and creative cocktails. Shopping in Ulaanbaatar is an experience to thrill and delight the shoppers. From the gleaming department stores to the famous hustle and bustle “black market”, Ulaanbaatar has all kinds of places to spend your money such as stylish cashmere outlets. « less
  • Mongolia in the 13th century
  • Mongolia is famous for its heritage of ancient history in the world. The historic heritage of Mongolia is mainly related to Chinggis Khaan, the warrior-statesman, who in the 13th century, united the Mongolian people into a strong nation and conquered a swath of the world from modern-day Korea to southern Russia and in invading deep into Europe, and the cultural achievements of his grandson, Khubilai Khan, in China are well-known in world history.
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  • Mongolia in 20th century
  • After the collapse of the empire, Mongolia was subjugated by Manchu dynasty for 200 hundred years, and then in 1911 the Mongols Monarchy was established.
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  • Modern Mongolia
  • In 1990’s, Mongolia transferred to Free Market economy and Democracy, and set the goal of building “democratic human socialism” based on a multi-party democracy. The great civilization started with the support of Soviet Union. In January 1992, a new constitution was established.
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  • Geography
  • Mongolia, the ancient nomadic Mongols is located in the heart of Central Asia. It borders with the Russia in the north and the People's Republic of China in the south. Mongolia's total land area is 604,250 square miles (1,564,116 km²).
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  • Climate
  • This is a country with hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30°C (-22°F). The country is also subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud. Ulan Bator has the lowest average temperature of any national capital in the world.
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  • Population
  • Mongolia has a population of approximately 2.7 million (the rest are minority peoples in China and the Soviet Union), population density is only 3.6 persons per square mile. The population is split between urban and rural dwellers. Except for a concentration of 1,000,000 people in Ulaanbaatar, the capital, the rest of the population is sparsely distributed in rural urban areas in the vast countryside.
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  • People
  • Based on Mongolia's history, particularly the tales of Chinggis Khan, visitors sometimes expect modern Mongolians to be rough, warlike, or even hostile towards strangers.
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  • National holidays
  • • New Year's Day - 1st January,

    • Tsagaan Sar - According to Lunar Calendar,

    • Mother & Children's Day - 1st June,

    • National Naadam Festival - 11-13th of July

    • Independence Day - 26th November.
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  • Religion
  • Various forms of Tengriism and Shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now modern day Mongolia; as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Such beliefs mostly gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but Shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture.
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  • Nomads
  • Present-day Mongolia is famous for its heritage of ancient history, culture and arts, specific traditions and custom, indigenous species of the world's rare animals. Two distinctive features of the Mongolian culture are nomadic way of life and Tibetan Buddhism that widespread as the major religion in Mongolia.
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